The abscisic acid present in the roots of this plant is extremely important. ABA is producedin terminal buds in preperation for winter. This slows plant growth and causes the plant to develop scales to protect the buds during the winter months. ABA is also very useful when the plant is under a lot of stress, such as decreased soil water potential.
The horse hooves in this picture are an example of animal adaptation. Adaptations develop over many generations in order to make it possible for the animal to live a certain way and a certain place. Since animals depend on their physial features to survive these adaptaions help them obtain food, keep safe, withstand weather, etc. The horse hooves allow a horse to travel in uneven and rocky areas without injuring their feet.
Amylase is an enzyme that breaks starch down into sugar and is present in saliva. The amylase assists in beginning the chemical process of digestion. The pancreas also makes amylase. In the pancreas the amylase converts the starch into glucose, providing the body with energy.
The stamen is the male reproductive organ of the flower. Usually each stamen has a stalk called the filament. On top of the filament is the anther. Their function is to transport nutrients to the developing pollen. Generally a flower will have six stamens.
Angiosperms are flowering plants and are the most diverse group of land plants. Along with gymnosperms, they are the only extant groups of seed-producing plants. There are 3 characteristics though that seperate them from gymnosperms. These characteristics include flowers, endosperm within the seed, and the production of fruits that contain the seeds.
This flower is an example of an autotroph. Autotrophs are organism that ca make their own food. They do this by using carbon dioxide and photosynthesis. The process of photosynthesis allows them to convert water, carbon dioxide, and solar energy into sugars and oxygen.
Bryophytes are land plants that are non-vascular. They also have neither flowers nor produce seeds. Bryophytes were probably the earliest land plants and evolved from green algal ancestor. This group of simple land plants are well adapted to moist habitats, allowing avast majority of them to be found in Tropical America.
Cellulose is the major constituent of paper made of cotton, linen, and other plant fibers. Cellulose is the structural component of the primary cell wall of green plants and about 33% of all plant matter is cellulose. This organic compound is the most common on the earth.
The frog shown in this picture is an example of an ectotherm. An ectothermic animal is unable to regulate its own body temperature so it fluctuates according to its surrondings. Because of this they are dependent on environmental heat sources and have low metabolic rates. Many ectothermic animals will bask in the sun in order to regulte their body heat.
Endosperm is the tissue produced under the seeds of most flowering plants around the time of fertilization. It surronds the embryo and provides nutrition in the form of starch, making endosperm an important source of nutrition in human diet. Endosperms can also contain oils and protein.
Unlike ectothermic animals, endotherms are animals that are able to regulate their own body heat. The body temperature of an endotherm is usually much warmer than the environment and stays about the same temperature. Mammals and birds, like the one in the picture, are endotherms.
Heartwood is the central, woody core of a tree, that no longer sustains the tree’s life by conducting water. Usually heartwood is denser and darker than the outer sapwood. The cells of heartwood usually contain tannins or other substances that make it dark and fragrant. It is mechanically strong , resistant to decay, and not easily penetrated.
Keratin is the key structural material making up the outer layer of human skin, hair, and nails. Keratin monomers assemble into bundles to form intermediate filaments. These filaments are tough and insoluble. The only biological matter that is as tough as keratin is chitin.
Lepidoptera is a large order of insects that include moths and butterflies and found virtually everywhere. Lepidoptera contains more than 180,000 species. These insects are characterized as being covered in scales, having two large compound eyes, and an elongated mouthpart. The larvae of these insects are called caterpillars.
The littoral zone is the part of a sea, lake, or river that is close to the shore. In coastal environments the littoral zone extends from the high water mark to shoreline areas that ar permanently submerged. In lakes the littoral zone refers to the portion that is less than 15 feet deep. This zone is home to most of the plant life because of the high amount of sunlight that is able to reach the plant.
Mutualism is the way two organisms biologically interact. Through this each individual derives a fitness benefit. The example shown in the picture is the relationship between the cow and bacteria within their intestines. The bacteria produces cellulase, which helps digestion in the cow and the bacteia benefit from having a stable supply of nutrients.
Radial symmetry in biology is the balanced distributon of duplicate body parts or shapes. The seed carpels in this apple demonstrate radial symmetry. Many types of leaves also display this.
An ovary, style, and stigma make up the female reproductive organ of flowering plants. The carpels are seperate or fused to form a pistil. The stigma is the part of the pistil which is receptive to pollen and the style is the slender stalk which typically connects the stigma to the ovary.
Thorns are modified branches with stems that have sharp, pointy ends. Generally thorns are used by plants to protect themselves from herbivores. Thorns likely evolved as a defense mechanism for plants growing in sandy environments.
Xylem sap consists mainly of water and inorganic ions. The basic function of xylem is to transport water but it also helps in transporting nutrient throughout the plant. Another job of the xylem is to replace the water lost during transpiration and photosynthesis.